The recent special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on global warming of 1.5°C shows that the world is on its way to breaching the 1.5°C limit by around 2040. The report for the first time also presents insight into hard and soft limits to adaptation, some of which would be reached at 1.5°C.

Limits to adaptation and approaches for dealing with risk “beyond adaptation” has been the focus of the international climate policy debate on L&D. This debate is currently still broad and diffuse, while research concepts, methods, and tools for providing direction for policy remain vague and contested. Moreover, current research mainly focuses on L&D in the Global South.